Glossary of Vitamins, Minerals, Aminos and Herbs




Alanine: Alanine assists the body in the regulation of blood sugar levels. Alanine plays an important role when low sugar levels exist within the body by helping to breakdown glucose molecules into usable energy.

Aloe: Aloe vera is primarily used to support the body's ability to heal externally. When applied to the skin, aloe vera has a soothing, healing effect and is commonly used to treat burns, scalds, sunburn and infection. Aloe can also be taken as an oral liquid to support digestive comfort.

Amino Acids: These are the building blocks that make up proteins. We need 20 different amino acids to ensure our bodies function properly. Some of these amino acids are made by the body (these are called essential aminos), and others must be supplied to the body.

Antioxidants: Antioxidants are substances that protect your body from the damage of oxidation caused by free radicals.

Arginine: Arginine supports the muscular system and is one of many components that make up creatine. Arginine supports healthy liver function, supports the immune system, and helps support healthy cholesterol levels.

Arnica: Arnica is an herb that grows mainly in Siberia and central Europe, as well as temperate climates in North America. Arnica has been known to support aches and bruises.

Aspartic Acid: Aspartic acid supports the synthesis of several other amino acids. Aspartic acid assists in maintaining central and peripheral nervous system health and is required for maintaining appropriate pH levels within the blood stream.

Astaxanthin: Astaxanthin is a red pigment created by microalgae giving some sea creatures such as salmon, krill, crayfish and flamingos their red colour. When these certain algae are stressed, they release Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant that helps protect it from the changes in its environment.

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Beta Carotene: See Vitamin A

Bilberry: Bilberries are a relative of the blueberry family and are known for supporting healthy eyesight, blood vessel strength and circulation.

Biotin: See Vitamin B7

Basil: Basil is a delicious, healthy herb that is commonly added to food and has been proven to contain antioxidants, prevent cancer, ward off viruses and infections, treat intestinal parasites, acne, and stimulate the immune system.

Bay: Bay leaves are known to balance blood sugar levels, treat bacterial infections and gastric ulcers, as well as alleviate headaches. Bay leaves also have fungicidal properties, soothes sore joints, and can even be used as a bug repellent.

Beta Alanine: A non-essential amino acid, that can be made by the body. Beta-alanine are used to make other chemicals in the body and is commonly used by mouth for improving athletic performance and exercise capacity, building lean muscle mass, and improving physical functioning in the elderly. 

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Calcium: Calcium assists in the development and maintenance of bones and teeth, and supports the muscular system. Calcium promotes blood clotting, digestive enzyme stimulation, immune system function, and proper nerve function.

Cayenne: Cayenne has been used for centuries in herbal products. Cayenne may support the clearing of congestion, quelling headaches, supporting healthy digestion, and detoxing.

Chromium: Chromium is required to properly metabolise carbohydrates and fats. Chromium also promotes appropriate blood glucose levels, supports healthy blood pressure, and can support cravings.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, Ubiquinone): CoQ10 is a substance that the body makes naturally and is used like a spark plug for the cells giving them the energy to do what they need to do. CoQ10 is used as an antioxidant as well as supporting a healthy heart.

Collagen: Collagen is the main structural compound found in our skin and connective tissues. Collagen can begin to break down as we age, if our bodies are nutritionally deficient.

Colloidal Silver: Colloidal Silver is made from particles of ionic silver. It can be used to support the immune system or as an antibacterial agent.

Copper: Copper assists in converting iron into haemoglobin, is required to produce red blood cells, and assists in transporting oxygen throughout the blood stream. Copper assists in promoting proper brain and nervous system functionality.

Cysteine: Cysteine promotes increases in the level of glutathione. Glutathione reduces the damage caused from free radicals. Glutathione assists in detoxifying the liver and promotes the excretion of heavy metals such as lead and mercury.

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Dandelion: Dandelion is commonly used as an appetite stimulant and diuretic. Dandelion can help reduce water retention and promote a healthy urinary tract. Dandelions support the body with digestion, weight management and healthy blood pressure.

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Echinacea: Echinacea is most commonly used to support the immune system and reduce the duration of ills and chills.

Eucalyptus: Eucalyptus is typically used as a decongestant and ills and chills symptom reducer. Eucalyptus oil can be applied externally as an insect repellent.

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Folate: See Vitamin B9

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Garcinia Cambogia: Garcinia cambogia, a tropical fruit also known as malabar tamarind, is a popular weight-management supplement. It is known to support the body's ability to block the making of fat and curbs appetite. It may also support healthy blood sugar and cholesterol levels.

Garlic: Garlic is a powerful herb that supports the immune system. Garlic acts as a natural antibiotic and antioxidant and is known support healthy cholesterol and blood pressure levels.

Ginger: Ginger supports the body by acting as a digestive aide and is known to calm the stomach. It also works as an appetite stimulant and reduces the effects associated with nausea, motion sickness and morning sickness.

Gingko: Ginkgo supports the circulatory system and increases blood flow to the brain which can help improve memory.

Ginseng: Ginseng supports the immune system, healthy cholesterol and blood sugar levels. It also helps the body to protect the liver.

Glutamic Acid: Glutamic acid stimulates the synthesis of gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA). GABA helps balance excitatory signals. Glutamic acid assists in creating muscle proteins and in the metabolic processing of fats and sugars.

Glutamine: Glutamine, when converted into glutamic acid, is essential for healthy brain function. Glutamine assists in the production of protein, is utilised as fuel for certain immune system cells, and aides in the removal of ammonia from the brain.

Glycine: Glycine increases gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and taurine levels. It promotes the synthesis of hemoglobin, bile acids, proteins, ATP, peptides and nucleic peptides, creatine, other amino acids, and regulates blood sugar levels.

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Histidine: Histidine is needed to produce histamine, a neurotransmitter that assists with sleep regulation, nerve suppression, and sexual function. Histidine also assists with the growth and repair of tissue and creates red and white blood cells.

Hypericum: See St John’s Wort

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Iodine: Iodine supports healthy thyroid gland activity and is stored in the thyroid gland as thyroglobin. Iodine is used to synthesise thyroxine, a thyroid specific hormone that is vital to overall growth and development.

Iron: Iron is required for the production of haemoglobin. Due to iron being present in haemoglobin, red blood cells are able to transport oxygen throughout the blood stream. Iron also supports the enzyme process and a healthy immune system.

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Kelp: Kelp supports the immune system, liver function, digestion, metabolism, cholesterol, and helps the body’s cardiovascular system.

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Keto: Keto is a diet plan that drastically reduces carbohydrates to very low levels (between 20 - 50g) to stimulate the body to burn ketones, that are produced from fat. Some people have found the Ketogenic diet to be effective as a weight management system, as although the diet is higher in fat than the recommended diet standard diet, the lack of carbohydrates in the body turns on its burn burning potential

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L-carnitine: L-carnitine is a naturally occurring amino acid derivative that's often taken as a weight management supplement. It plays a crucial role in the production of energy by transporting fatty acids into your cells' mitochondria.

Lavender: Lavender is a fragrant herb commonly used to promote mental calmness and healthy sleeping patterns. Lavender oil is used in massage and to help support the body through times of anxiety.

Lysine: Lysine promotes the production of carnitine. Lysine supports the immune system, promotes collagen synthesis, enhanced absorption of calcium, general development and growth, and maintains adequate levels of blood cholesterol. Lysine also supports lip health.

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Maca: Maca is a native plant to Peru and is known for its health benefits. Maca may support healthy hormonal balance, stamina, endurance and overall energy.

Magnesium: Magnesium assists in the metabolising of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Magnesium supports neuromuscular contractions, the relaxation of nerves, and contributes to fluid and electrolyte balance.

Manganese: Manganese acts as an activator in the enzyme system to allow carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to be metabolised. Manganese promotes coordination between the central nervous and peripheral nervous systems.

Manuka: Manuka is a native New Zealand tree species from the Leptospermum family. Its antibacterial and other qualities are well known to Maori people. Manuka is commonly found in honey and skin care products.

Milk Thistle: Milk Thistle is commonly used to detox the body and has often been used to support the liver. It also has been linked to creating bile in the stomach for the digestion of high fat products

Mint: Mint is used to support the digestive process, relieve congestion and cold symptoms, and reduce stomach nausea and morning sickness. When used externally, mint can help to reduce pain related to insect bites and sunburn.

Molybdenum: Molybdenum promotes the breaking down of toxins that build up within the body. Molybdenum has antioxidant characteristics that allow it support the body.

Myrrh: Myrrh helps protect the stomach's natural mucus lining, provides stimulation for the thyroid gland, and fights inflammation. Myrrh is used as a toothpaste and mouthwash, prevents gum disease, and kills bacteria in the mouth.

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Nettle: Nettle can act as a diuretic, promoting a healthy urinary tract and preventing water retention. It can also help to normalise blood pressure, reduce inflammation, relieve joint discomfort, and reduce the symptoms of hay fever.

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Olive Leaf: Olive leaf extract comes from the leaves of the olive tree (olea europaea) and supports immunity and healthy cardiovascular system.

Omegas (Essential Fatty Acids): Omegas 3, 6 and 9 are essential fatty acids (EFAs) that are important for the functioning of the body. EFAs are beneficial for the brain, heart, skin and many bodily functions. Our bodies don't produce all necessary omegas so it is important to get them from foods or supplementation.

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Parsley: Parsley can serve as a diuretic, allowing the body to discharge urine and prevent water retention. It can also help normalise blood pressure, aide digestion, and freshen breath when eaten.

Phenylalanine: Phenylalanine supports the central nervous system's regulation of appetite and satiety. Phenylalanine is converted into norepinephrine and dopamine which support mood and increase memory and learning.

Potassium: Potassium promotes healthy electrolyte balance by acting as an alkalising agent in the blood and tissues, preventing a hyper acidic environment. Potassium is involved in all muscle contractions and nerve transmissions.

Proline: Proline supports collagen, a fibre that is extremely important in tendons, ligaments, connective tissue, and skin. Proline makes up approximately 15% of collagen and thus supports the body's various structural components.

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Quercetin: Quercetin is a flavonoid which as an antioxidant supports the body against the damage of free radicals.

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Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): This is the amount of nutrients needed daily to prevent the development of disease in most people.

Rosemary: Rosemary can promote healthy digestion and circulation.

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Saffron: Saffron can support the digestive process and help reduce gut discomfort. Saffron may also relieve menstrual pain, reduce cholesterol, de-clog arteries, normalise blood pressure, and reduce the symptoms of asthma.

Sage: Sage can support improvements in brain function, including concentration and memory. Sage also prevents kidney stones, regulates menstruation, improves digestion, combats infection, and acts as an antiperspirant to reduce sweating.

Selenium: Selenium assists in preventing damage caused by oxidative stress. Selenium contributes to preventing and combating cellular damage, illness and prevents blood clots.

Serine: Serine is required to produce tryptophan, a precursor to serotonin. Serine is present in the production of antibodies and immunoglobins and in the formation of various other cells, as well as in the functioning of RNA and DNA.

Sodium: Sodium promotes proper pH and fluid balance and allows for healthy sweating and prevents dehydration and heat exhaustion. Sodium helps support a healthy blood pressure, and allows the muscular and nervous systems to function properly.

Spirulina: Spirulina has between 55 and 70% protein (more than beef, chicken, and soybeans), 8 essential and 10 non-essential amino acids, as well as high levels of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), beta-carotene, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, vitamin B12, iron, calcium, phosphorus, nucleic acids RNA and DNA, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin, a pigment-protein complex that is found only in blue-green algae.

St John’s Wort: St John’s Wort is a flowering plant that has been used to support healthy mood balance.

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Tarragon: Tarragon can help support healthy digestion, normalising of blood pressure, and can help stimulate appetite. Externally, it has a numbing effect that relieves toothaches and insect strings.

Thyme: Thyme has antibacterial properties and can help support the reduction of viruses and bacteria. Thyme is also shown to support the body in fighting ills and chills, improving digestion, and suppressing the common cough.

Tryptophan: Tryptophan supports the central and peripheral nervous system. Tryptophan is a precursor to serotonin which supports the regulation of sleep, mood, and appetite.

Tyrosine: Tyrosine supports the central nervous system and assists in maintaining several types of neurotransmitters. Tyrosine reduces tissue and organ damage caused by free radicals, controls appetite, and produces hair and skin pigment.

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Valerian: Valerian has been shown to support sleeping, helping to reduce insomnia and promote a regular rest cycle. In addition, the herb may help with anxiety and nervousness.

Vitamin A (Retinol, Beta-Carotene): Vitamin A is involved in several bodily functions including vision, embryonic development, support of various tissues, as well as immune activation and support.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin): Vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin that the body requires to break down carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Every cell of the body requires vitamin B1. Vitamin B1 is also essential for the proper functioning of nerve cells, heart, brain and the digestive system.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Vitamin B2 is a water-soluble vitamin that helps the body process amino acids and fats, activate vitamin B6 and folic acid, and convert carbohydrates. Vitamin B2 also promotes healthy hair, skin and nails, supports mouth lip and tongue functions.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Vitamin B3 is required for cell respiration and helps release the energy in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It also supports proper circulation and healthy skin, functioning of the nervous system, and normal secretion of bile and stomach fluids.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid): Vitamin B5 is a water-soluble vitamin involved triggering the adrenal glands, is essential in transporting and releasing energy from fats, and enables the synthesis of cholesterol, vitamin D, and hormones.

Vitamin B6: Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin and is part of the vitamin B complex. Vitamin B6 plays a role in the synthesis of antibodies by the immune system, which are needed to fight many diseases. It helps maintain normal nerve function and also acts in the formation of red blood cells. Vitamin B6 is also required for the chemical reactions needed to digest proteins. The higher the protein intake, the more the need for vitamin B6. It also helps to regulate sodium and potassium levels within the body.

Vitamin B7 (Biotin): Biotin primary role is to promote the metabolic processing of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Biotin is required to create fatty acids and amino acids and assists in red blood cell synthesis. Biotin also promotes healthy hair, skin and nails.

Vitamin B9 (Folate): Vitamin B9, also known as folic acid, is a B vitamin necessary for cell replication and growth. Folic acid helps form building blocks of DNA, which holds the body’s genetic information, and building blocks of RNA, needed for protein synthesis. Folic acid is most important, then, for rapidly growing tissues, such as those of a foetus, and rapidly regenerating cells, like red blood cells and immune cells.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine): Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin needed for normal nerve cell activity, and DNA replication. Vitamin B12 supports the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Vitamin C is an essential water-soluble vitamin that has a wide range of functions in the human body. One of vitamin C’s important functions is acting as an antioxidant protecting the body from damage by free radicals. For recommended  RDI* please refer, 
 - Infants and toddlers 1-3 35mg/day
 - Children 4-8 35mg/day
 - Adolescents 9-18 40mg/day
 - Adults 19-70+ 45mg/day
 - Pregnant women 60mg/day
 - Breastfeeding women 85mg/day
* Recommended Daily Dosage from NZ Nutritional Foundation 

Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol): Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that helps maintain blood levels of calcium, by increasing absorption from food and reducing urinary calcium loss. Vitamin D can also help support a balanced mood, especially in times of less UV exposure such as winter.

Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body from damage. Vitamin E also plays some role in the body’s ability to process glucose, support inflammation, blood cell regulation, connective tissue growth, and genetic control of cell division.

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone): Vitamin K is necessary for proper bone growth and blood coagulation. Vitamin K accomplishes this by helping the body transport calcium. Vitamin K also assists in maintaining bone mass and as an antioxidant.

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Water-Soluble Vitamin: Water-soluble vitamins like B6, C, and folic acid are easily absorbed by the body. Your body uses the vitamins it needs, then excretes excess water-soluble vitamins in urine.

Witch Hazel: Witch hazel is used to support gut discomfort, regulate menstruation, and can help wound healing and burns when used topically. It may provide support for haemorrhoids, cuts, bruises, colds, fever, diarrhoea, and sore muscles.

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Ylang Ylang: Ylang Ylang is a tree that grows in the forests of Asia and the South Pacific. It is made into an essential oil which is known to support mood balance, as well as healthy blood pressure and the body’s natural sleep rhythms.

Yeast (Nutritional): Nutritional yeast is made from a single-celled organism, saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is grown on molasses and then harvested, washed, and dried with heat to kill or “deactivate” it. Because it’s inactive, it doesn’t froth or grow like baking yeast does so it has no leavening ability. Nutritional yeast is packed with nutrition, particularly B-vitamins, folic acid, selenium, zinc, and protein

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Zinc: Zinc promotes the healthy synthesis of proteins and cell reproduction. Zinc assists in the healing of wounds and infections. Zinc also supports healthy skin, hair, and sexual growth and development.

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